This systematic review and meta-analysis includes previously published observational studies. We could not influence the design of the prior studies upon which this work is based and cannot comment on individual ethics approval or consent. Patients were not involved in the conduct of our epidemiological study, and there is no identifiable data.
Goldstein, R.F., Abell, S.K., Ranasinha, S. et al. Gestational weight gain across continents and ethnicity: systematic review and meta-analysis of maternal and infant outcomes in more than one million women. BMC Med 16, 153 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1128-1